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标题

野牛的种群现状、生态习性及致危因素

作者

尹 峰 马 凯 刘定震

机构

北京师范大学生命科学学院,北京师范大学生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室;中国野生动物保护协会

摘要

野牛(Bosgaurus)主要分布于中国、印度、孟加拉、尼泊尔、不丹、越南、老挝、柬埔寨、泰国、缅甸和马来西亚.据评估,其全球种群数量约13000~30000头.在我国主要分布于云南省,1996—2000年的调查显示共有约480头,种群下降趋势严重,灭绝风险较大.栖息地丧失和破碎化、盗猎和非法贸易、种群衰退和杂交污染以及疾病和传染病是其主要威胁.建议加强野牛的生态学研究,加大栖息地保护力度,打击非法贸易并加强管理和监控,促进野牛种群的恢复.

关键词

云南野牛,濒危动物,种群现状,保护

引用

尹 峰,马 凯,刘定震. 野牛的种群现状、生态习性及致危因素[J]. 北京师范大学学报(自然科学版),2015,51(5):504-510.

基金

国家林业局珍稀濒危物种野外救护与繁育资助项目(2012-2013年度项目)

分类号

Q958.1

DOI

10.16360/j.cnki.jbnuns.2015.05.013

Title

Population status, ecological habit and threatened factors of wild gaurs (Bos gaurus): a review

Author

YIN Feng, MA Kai, LIU Ding-zhen

Affiliations

Key Laboratory of Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering of Ministry of Education,College of Life Sciences,Beijing Normal University;China Wildlife Conservation Association

Abstract

The wild gaur (Bos gaurus) is a rare and most endangered species in China. This species is also listed in the IUCN Red Data Book as vulnerable and in Appendix I by CITES. Now wild gaurs are restricted to tiny, fragmented populations in areas of Southern and Southeastern Asia including China, India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar and Malaysia. The global population is estimated to be 13 000 - 30 000 with a total of 5 200 - 18 000 mature individuals. A survey conducted by the Chinese government in 1996-2000 showed a total of 480 gaurs in Xishuangbanna and Puer of Yunnan Province. This paper reviews the population status and impacting environmental factors on the wild gaur by referring to both literature and field investigation in 2013. Currently, there are four major factors threatening the subsistence of wild gaurs: 1) habitat loss and fragmentation, 2) poaching and illegal trade, 3) population decline and hybridizing contamination, 4) diseases including infectious diseases. Wild gaur population is declining continuously, the species is on the brink of extinction. The status of gaur population has drawn attention from scientists and governmental officers in recent years. Consequently some efforts have been made including constructing biological corridors between different habitats in which gaur habituated. However, the efficacy of those works is not easy to evaluate due to the lack of basic ecological knowledge about gaur. Thus, we suggest that a national survey on gaur population be carried as soon as possible, protection of existing habitat be strengthened, habitat fragmentation be prevented. Legislative enforcement and management and monitoring should be strengthened to encourage restoration of gaurs in the wild.

Key words

Bos gaurus;endangered mammals;population status;conservation

cite

YIN Feng, MA Kai, LIU Ding-zhen. Population status, ecological habit and threatened factors of wild gaurs (Bos gaurus): a review [J]. Journal of Beijing Normal University(Natural Science),2015,51(5):504-510.

DOI

10.16360/j.cnki.jbnuns.2015.05.013

Copyright © 2014 Journal of Beijing Normal University (Natural Science)
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