首页    编委会    编辑部    历任主编    获奖信息    征稿简则    友情链接    出版道德    English    旧版主页
  在线期刊
       最新录用
       当期目次
       过刊浏览

  下载专区
       版权协议
       征稿范文
       来稿登记表
       录用证明

  联系我们

投稿e-mail: jbnuns_sub@bnu.edu.cn

主编e-mail: jbnuns_eic@bnu.edu.cn

办公地点:北京师范大学 科技楼A区216,218,220室

电话:(010)58807851,58802050,58807872,58807713

通信处:北京市海淀区新街口外大街19号北京师范大学理科学报编辑部

邮政编码:100875

办公室e-mail: jbnuns@bnu.edu.cn

本网站暂不提供全文下载,如需全文下载请点击

中国知网

 

标题

中国西汉至清代北方农牧民族战争及其与温度变化的关联

作者

刘 璐 苏 筠 方修琦

机构

北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院

摘要

本文重建了中国西汉到清代( 公元前206—1911)北方游牧民族与农耕民族的战争变化序列, 进而分析了民族战争与气候变化之间的关系. 结果显示: 1)双方共发生战争832次, 平均每10a发生3.9次; 根据战争频次可划分为西汉低发、东汉高发期, 三国魏晋南北朝、隋唐五代低发期, 宋元明清高发期3个阶段; 在百年尺度和30a尺度的气候变化上, 气候暖期多对应战争高发, 冷期多对应战争低发. 2)农牧战争中, 有71.3%的战争为游牧民族发动, 但最终61.1%的战争为农耕民族获胜; 相比于暖期, 冷期农耕民族主动发动战争的比例增加, 但胜利的比例降低. 3) 气候变化作为战争事件背景, 对战争有间接影响. 冷期时, 农耕、游牧双方实力均有减弱, 形成退让态势, 战争频次相对较少; 暖期游牧民族多次发动战争, 可能是由人口膨胀导致的生活资料匮乏、游牧民族强盛时社会结构性需求扩大引起的, 同时暖期的气候环境为游牧民族南下提供了良好的物质基础, 战争掠夺所带来的低成本高收益也诱使游牧民族引发与农耕民族的战争.

关键词

农牧战争; 气候变化; 中国; 西汉至清代

引用

刘 璐 苏 筠 方修琦. 中国西汉至清代北方农牧民族战争及其与温度变化的关联.[J]. 北京师范大学学报(自然科学版),2016,52(4)450-457.

基金

国家自然科学基金资助项目(41371201)

分类号

X24

DOI

10.16360/j.cnki.jbnuns.2016.04.009

Title

Wars between farming and nomadic groups from Western Han Dynasty to Qing Dynasty in north China and relationship with temperature change

Author

LIU Lu, SU Yun, FANG Xiuqi

Affiliations

School of Geography, Beijing Normal University

Abstract

In ancient China , nomadic and farming groups had different lifestyles , reflecting differences in living conditions . Changes in regional agriculture and animal husbandry productivity due to climate changes led to either wars or peace between nomadic and farming groups . A war sequence of farming and nomadic groups in north China from Western Han Dynasty to Qing Dynasty (206BC—1911AD ) was reconstructed , and relationship between national war and climate change was analyzed . There were 832 wars between the two groups from Western Han Dynasty to Qing Dynasty . The average was 3.9 times per 10a . High incidence of war occurred in Eastern Han Dynasty , Song Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty , Ming Dynasty , Qing Dynasty . Low incidence of war occurred in Western Han Dynasty , Three Kingdoms , Wei and Jin Dynasties , and Northern and Southern Dynasties , Sui and Tang Dynasties , Five Dynasties . On a 100-year-period timescale and a 30-year-period timescale , warm climates corresponded to high incidence of war , and cold climates corresponded to low incidence of war . The nomadic people initiated 71.3% of wars , but 61.1% were won by the farmers . Compared with warm period , proportion of farming people initiating wars in cold period increased , but proportion of victories was reduced . Climate change plays an indirect role in wars between the two groups . In cold period , strength of both groups weakened , and concessions were made lowering war frequency . In warm period , nomadic group initiated wars many times possibly due to insufficient means of livelihood after population expansion and expanded social structural requirements when nomadic group was strong . Further , warm climate provided a solid material foundation for nomadic and farming groups , especially contributed to improve productivity of nomadic group . War plunders with low cost and high yield also induced war occurrence between farming and nomadic groups

Key words

wars between farming and nomadic groups ; climate change; China; from Western Han Dynasty to Qing Dynasty

cite

LIU Lu, SU Yun, FANG Xiuqi. Wars between farming and nomadic groups from Western Han Dynasty to Qing Dynasty in north China and relationship with temperature change [J]. Journal of Beijing Normal University (Natural Science), 2016,52(4):450-457.

DOI

10.16360/j.cnki.jbnuns.2016.04.009

Copyright © 2014 Journal of Beijing Normal University (Natural Science)
Designed by Mr. Sun Chumin. Email: cmsun@mail.bnu.edu.cn